Food Preference and Food Consumption of Primary Grade Students


  • Glendoris G. Galia Leyte Normal University
  • Ellen Mae Morano Leyte Normal University
  • John Mar M. Cuayzon Leyte Normal University
  • Josephine B. Buendia Leyte Normal University
  • Clarisa C. Somono Leyte Normal University
  • Leah D. Gravillo Leyte Normal University
  • Alma Sonia Sanchez-Danday Leyte Normal University
  • Ariel G. Salarda Leyte Normal University



Food Preference, Food Consumption, Basic Education Students


This study investigated the food preferences and consumption of elementary school pupils and the factors that influence them. A stratified random sampling with equal allocation was used to determine the respondents of the study from among the pupils in an elementary school in Palo, Leyte. The 3-point hedonic food preference scale and the 3-point hedonic food consumption scale were also used in the study to determine which foods were preferred and consumed by the pupils. The scale used in this study was based on the foods available in the respondent’s environment and the factors reported in the relevant research literature. The gathered data were subjected to different statistical treatments in order to answer the research questions. This study was able to determine the food preferences and food consumption of basic education students. Moreover, the study findings may provide deeper insights into food preference and food consumption among elementary school pupils and contribute useful information to future research.


Angeles-Agdeppa, I., & Toledo, M. B. (2020). Usual Nutrient and Food Intake of Filipino Stunted Children: Does It Matter?. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 8(9), 516-527.

Ayoughi, F., Handley, M., Garza, J., Amin, S., Volpe, R., & Lammert, A. (2022). Parental perspective and feeding practices effects on food neophobia in elementary school children in San Luis Obispo County. Journal of Sensory Studies, 37( 1), e12717.

Beckerman, J., Alike, Q., Lovin, E., Tamez, M., & Mattei, J. (2017). The Development and Public Health Implications of Food Preferences in Children. Frontiers in Nutrition, 4. doi: 10.3389/fnut.2017.00066

Bleiweiss-Sande, R., Chui, K., Wright, C., Amin, S., Anzman-Frasca, S., & Sacheck, J. M. (2019, November 9).

Associations between Food Group Intake, Cognition, and Academic Achievement in Elementary Schoolchildren. MDPI.

Bosco, F.J. (2020) “Geographies of food: Place, space, and scale in Food Studies,” The Geography Teacher, 17(3), pp. 73–76. Available at:

Burg, X., Metcalfe, J. J., Ellison, B., & Prescott, M. P. (2021, June 22). Effects of Lunch Time on Food Consumption and Waste in School-age Children. Effects of Longer Seated Lunch Time on Food Consumption and Waste in Elementary and Middle School–age Children: A Randomized Clinical Trial | Nutrition | JAMA Network Open | JAMA Network.

Capanzana, M. V., & Aguila, D. V. (2020). Philippines Case Study: Government Policies on Nutrition Education. In Nutrition Education: Strategies for Improving Nutrition and Healthy Eating in Individuals and Communities (Vol. 92, pp. 119-129). Karger Publishers.

Congress of the Philippines (2017). Republic Act No. 11037: An Act Institutionalizing a National Feeding Program for Undernourished Children in Public Day Care, Kindergarten and Elementary Schools to Combat Hunger and Undernutrition among Filipino Children and Appropriating Funds Therefore. Retrieved from https://www. on September 20, 2018.

Cotton, W., Dudley, D., Peralta, L., & Werkhoven, T. (2020). The effect of teacher-delivered nutrition education programs on elementary-aged students: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Preventive medicine reports, 20, 101178.

Chu, Y. L., Farmer, A., Fung, C., Kuhle, S., Storey, K. E., & Veugelers, P. J. (2013). Involvement in home meal preparation is associated with food preference and self-efficacy among Canadian children. Public health nutrition, 16(1), 108-112.

Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational research: planning, conduction, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (4th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education.

Department of Health-National Nutrition Council (2017). Philippine Plan of Action for Nutrition (PPAN) 2017–2022 Executive Summary. Retrieved from downloads/category/118-ppan.html on September 20, 2018.

Dorado, J. B., Azaña, G. P., Viajar, R. V., Ramirez, M. A. R. M., Ferrer, E. B., Buyco, N. G., ... & Capanzana, M. V. (2020). Assessing school-lunch feeding and nutrition education strategy for healthier kids in selected Philippine public schools. Nutrition and Health, 26(3), 231-242.

Farris, A. R., Misyak, S., Duffey, K. J., Atzaba-Poria, N., Hosig, K., Davis, G. C., & Serrano, E. (2016). Elementary parent perceptions of packing lunches and the National School Lunch Program. J Child Nutr Manag, 40(1), 1-10.

Fieldhouse, P. (1996) Food and Nutrition: Customs and Culture, 2nd edn. Chapman and Hall, New York.

Food and Nutrition Research Institute. Facts and Figures 2013, 8th National Nutrition Survey Biochemical Survey;

Food and Nutrition Research Institute, Department of Science and Technology: Metro Manila, Philippines, 2015; pp. 23–51.

Glorioso, I. G., Gonzales, M. S., & Malit, A. M. P. (2020). School-based nutrition education to improve children and their mothers' knowledge on food and nutrition in rural areas of the Philippines. Malaysian Journal of Nutrition, 26(2).

Healthy-Food-Choices-In-Schools. (2019, June 13). 3 ways nutrition influences student learning potential and school performance. Retrieved December 12, 2021, from

Hedonic Scales - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics. (n.d.). Hedonic Scales - an Overview | ScienceDirect Topics.

Jung, T., Huang, J., Eagan, L., & Oldenburg, D. (2019). Influence of school-based nutrition education program on healthy eating literacy and healthy food choice among primary school children. International Journal of Health Promotion and Education, 57(2), 67-81.

Just, D., & Price, J. (2013). Default options, incentives and food choices: evidence from elementary-school children. Public health nutrition, 16(12), 2281-2288

Kabir, A., Miah, S., & Islam, A. (2018, June 19). Factors influencing eating behavior and dietary intake among resident students in a public university in Bangladesh: A qualitative study. Factors Influencing Eating Behavior and Dietary Intake Among Resident Students in a Public University in Bangladesh: A Qualitative Study | PLOS ONE.

Katz, D. L., Katz, C. S., Treu, J. A., Reynolds, J., Njike, V., Walker, J., ... & Michael, J. (2011). Teaching healthful food choices to elementary school students and their parents: The Nutrition Detectives™ Program. Journal of School Health, 81(1), 21-28.

Konrad, M., Fuchs-Neuhold, B., Staubmann, W., Grach, D., Hörmann-Wallner, M., & Kronberger, A. et al. (2020). Development Of a Nutritional Sensory Toolkit for Kindergarten Teachers. International Journal of Early Years Education, 29(3), 314-328. doi: 10.1080/09669760.2020.1863190

Krejcie, R. V., & Morgan, D. W. (1970). Determining Sample Size for Research Activities. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 30(3), 607–610.

Lakkakula, A., Geaghan, J., Zanovec, M., Pierce, S., & Tuuri, G. (2010). Repeated taste exposure increases liking for vegetables by low-income elementary school children. Appetite, 55(2), 226-231.

Lee, H., Kim, J., & Song, S. (2019). Assessment of Dietary Behaviors Among Preschoolers in Daejeon: Using Nutrition Quotient for Preschoolers (NQ-P). Journal Of Nutrition and Health, 52(2), 194. doi: 10.4163/jnh.2019.52.2.194

Lee, J. H., Lee, E. H., & Choe, E. (2014). Study on eating habits and food preference for breakfast of elementary, middle, or high school students in the Incheon area. Korean journal of food and cookery science, 30(2), 170-182.

Martinez, S. M., Rhee, K., Blanco, E., & Boutelle, K. (2014). Maternal Attitudes and Behaviors Regarding Feeding Practices in Elementary School− Aged Latino Children: A Pilot Qualitative Study on the Impact of the Cultural Role of Mothers in the US− Mexican Border Region of San Diego, California. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 114(2), 230-237.

Muhasidah, Muhasidah & Nasrullah, Nasrullah & Yusuf, M & Jaya, Ningsih & Laubo, Naharia & Angriani, Sri & Hasriany, Hasriany & Shofwan, Imam & Farida, Nuzulia & Umanailo, M Chairul Basrun. (2019). Healthy Food With Children Learning Achievements At Makassar City Elementary School. International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research. 8.

Nelson, M. R., & Kehr, D. P. (2016). Food-focused advertising literacy can increase nutrition knowledge in elementary school students. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 48(10), 749-751.

Niaki, S. F., Moore, C. E., Chen, T. A., & Cullen, K. W. (2017). Younger elementary school students waste more school lunch foods than older elementary school students. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 117(1), 95-101.

Ogden, J. (2010). Eating behaviour. Health psychology, 59.

Perera, T., Frei, S., Frei, B., Wong, S. S., & Bobe, G. (2015). Improving Nutrition Education in US Elementary Schools: Challenges and Opportunities. Journal of Education and Practice, 6(30), 41-50.

Reeve, E., Thow, A. M., Bell, C., Engelhardt, K., Gamolo-Naliponguit, E. C., Go, J. J., & Sacks, G. (2018). Implementation lessons for school food policies and marketing restrictions in the Philippines: a qualitative policy analysis. Globalization and health, 14(1), 1-14.

Ronto, R., Rathi, N., Worsley, A., Sanders, T., Lonsdale, C., & Wolfenden, L. (2020). Enablers and barriers to implementation of and compliance with school-based healthy food and beverage policies: a systematic literature review and meta-synthesis. Public health nutrition, 23(15), 2840-2855

Smith, M. L. (2006). The archaeology of food preference. American Anthropologist, 108(3), 480-493.

Sorhaindo, Annik & Feinstein, Leon. (2021). What is the relationship between child nutrition and school outcomes?.

Ventura, A. K., & Worobey, J. (2013). Early influences on the development of food preferences. Current biology, 23(9), R401-R408.

Zhou, W. J., Xu, X. L., Li, G., Sharma, M., Qie, Y. L., & Zhao, Y. (2016). Effectiveness of a school-based nutrition and food safety education program among primary and junior high school students in Chongqing, China. Global health promotion, 23(1), 37-49.




How to Cite

Galia, G. G. ., Morano, E. M., Cuayzon, J. M. M. ., Buendia, J. B. ., Somono, C. C. ., Gravillo, L. D. ., Sanchez-Danday, A. S. ., & Salarda, A. G. . (2023). Food Preference and Food Consumption of Primary Grade Students. East Asian Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, 2(8), 3479–3490.




Most read articles by the same author(s)